World Bulletin/News Desk
Less than three years after sweeping Hosni Mubarak from power, the Egyptian revolution has come full circle.
Mubarak had ruled Egypt with an iron fist since the 1981 assassination of President Anwar Sadat.
Under his regime, authorities cracked down on dissidents, particularly the then banned Muslim Brotherhood, the country's most powerful and best-organized opposition group.
Several high-ranking Brotherhood leaders had languished in jail for years on politically-motivated charges.
But the winds of change began to blow with the appearance of former UN nuclear chief and Nobel laureate Mohamed ElBaradei.
Returning to Egypt in 2010 after having served two terms as chief of the UN International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), ElBaradei championed a campaign for change and became a prominent Mubarak opponent.
He joined a coalition with all opposition forces at the time, including the Muslim Brotherhood, to offer an alternative for the oppressive Mubarak regime.
They spearheaded a campaign to gather million signatures to demand change.
Inspired by ElBaradei, young activists led protests on January 25, 2011, against police brutality, which soon matured into mass demonstrations countrywide demanding Mubarak's ouster.
On February 11, Mubarak announced abandoning his post, drawing the curtain on his 30-year rule.
After his ouster, the Muslim Brotherhood swept elections for both houses of parliament.
Brotherhood candidate Mohamed Morsi also won the country's presidential election, becoming Egypt's first democratically elected president.
Suddenly, the once banned Muslim Brotherhood had the presidency and the parliamentary majority. Many of its senior figures were appointed ministers and governors.
Mubarak faced several charges from killing demonstrators during the January revolution, misuse of office to squandering public funds.
He sent the larger part of the past years between jail and detention in military hospitals.
ElBaradei, who refused to contest the presidential elections, led the opposition against the Muslim Brotherhood regime.
During his one year in office Morsi faced massive protests against his regime.
His opponents accused him of reneging on several election campaign promises, particularly a national unity government and a constitution with a high degree of national consensus.
The protest group Tamarod (Rebel) spearheaded a nationwide campaign to gather signatures for the removal of Morsi.
The group called for mass protests against Morsi on June 30, marking his first anniversary in office.
The call was supported by ElBaradei's opposition National Salvation Front.
After three days of protests, the powerful military ousted Morsi and suspended the constitution.
The head of the constitutional court was named interim president and ElBaradei became his vice president for international relations.
Morsi has not been seen in public since his ouster.
Instead, the prosecution has remanded him in custody on multiple charges, including murder, incitement to murder and conspiring with the Gaza-based Hamas group.
The top leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood, including supreme leader Mohamed Badie and his powerful deputy Khairat al-Shater, is now held on murder and inciting violence charges.
ElBaradei has resigned his post in protest at last month's violent dispersal of pro-Morsi sit-ins in Cairo's Rabaa al-Adawiya and Giza's Nahda squares.
He has returned to his residence in Vienna, where he used to live before returning to Egypt to lead the opposition against Mubarak.
Mubarak, for his part, has been moved to Cairo's Maadi Military Hospital where he would be held under house arrest.
On Wednesday an Egyptian court ordered Mubarak’s release after accepting his appeal against charges that he had received millions of Egyptian pounds worth of "gifts" from state-owned daily Al-Ahram while in office.
It was the last case for which Mubarak had been remanded in custody.
Many believe that with the imprisonment of the entire Muslim Brotherhood leadership, including ousted Morsi, the departure of ElBaradei and the release of Mubarak the 2011 Egyptian revolution has come full circle.
Güncelleme Tarihi: 22 Ağustos 2013, 17:53