He and other critics of President Vladimir Putin were arrested as police broke up a rally in Moscow organised by Mr Kasparov's Other Russia coalition.
Police moved in when protesters tried to march to the election commission, which had barred Other Russia candidates from next week's election.
President Putin's supporters are widely expected to win the 2 December poll.
Other Russia brings together a broad coalition of mainstream politicians, leftists and nationalists, all of whom are opposed to the Kremlin.
About 3,000 protesters attended Saturday's rally, carrying banners and calling for the country to be rid of President Putin.
In speeches, leaders of the movement bitterly criticised the upcoming parliamentary election, saying there was no choice for voters.
Attending the rally for the first time was the leader of one of the mainstream liberal parties - a sign that the movement is growing, says the BBC's Richard Galpin in Moscow.
The trouble broke out at the end of the rally when about 100 protestors tried to break through police lines.
They began to march to the election commission and were stopped by riot police.
Mr Putin stands down when Russia elects a new president in March 2008, as the constitution bars him from seeking a third consecutive term.
He has decided to stand as a parliamentary candidate - which effectively guarantees him a seat in the next parliament.
The Supreme Court has dismissed an opposition complaint against the move.
Güncelleme Tarihi: 25 Kasım 2007, 10:52