Turkey was ranked 56th in the 2010 report of Transparency International (TI), which lists countries on the basis of level of corruption. Turkey ranked 61st out of 180 countries in 2009, with the organization commenting that fraud and corruption in the private sector are likely to exceed the level of corruption in public agencies over the next few years. Recent data from the police department have proven them right.
The two reports differ in that the TI report attributes the highest amount of corruption to the education sector, whereas the National Police Department's report finds that health is the most corrupt sector, followed by local government services.
The National Police Department's report is based on data from large-scale operations during which thousands were detained in 1999 and the 2000s on suspicion of fraud or corruption. However, measures taken after the operations have greatly reduced corruption levels in the public sector, the report also says.
According to data from the operations, 1,029 suspects were detained in 104 corruption and fraud cases in 2007. This number rose to 1,999 in 209 cases in 2008, and to 4,580 suspects in 363 cases in 2009. In 2010, 3,386 people were detained as suspects in 439 operations launched to address allegations of corruption.
The public versus private sector ratio in the detentions has changed significantly over the years, according to the National Police Department's report. In fact, in 2010 the number of fraud suspects employed in public agencies was 1,058, while that figure was 2,328 for suspects in private companies.
In the same year, 353 of the 1,058 public agency employees accused of fraud were arrested, while 598 people from private companies were arrested. A total of 951 people from both the public and private sectors have been charged with corruption-related crimes. Health, local government, judicial services, finance, public works projects, energy and agriculture register the highest corruption rates on a sector basis. Two hundred eighty-three of those arrested were in the health sector, 274 in local government, 112 in judicial services, 74 in finance, 99 in the field of public works and urban development, 16 in the energy sector and 11 in agriculture. However, the report also says there has been a significant decrease in the number of arrests in every sector compared to past years.
Health sector most corrupt
Health tops the list of the most corrupt sectors, and the National Police Department says this is understandable because Turkey's annual health spending is about TL 45 billion. The total number of people detained on suspicion of fraudulent operations in 2010 in the health sector was 1,238, 410 of whom were public officials as compared to the 828 health officials employed in the private sector.
The second most corrupt sector was local government. Six hundred eighty people were detained in operations looking into allegations of fraud in the local government sector. Of these, 436 people were representatives of private businesses, while 244 were public servants. Among the public officials detained 101 were eventually found guilty and arrested, while that number was 173 in the case of private sector representatives.
Corrupt judicial officers
Judicial services constitute the third most corrupt sector in Turkey. A total of 316 suspects were detained during 2010 anti-corruption raids, 151 of whom were public servants while 165 were private sector employees. Fifty-five of the public sector suspects and 57 of the private sector ones were put under arrest at the end of the investigations. The 112 arrests indicate that nearly 50 percent of the allegations leveled at suspects in the judicial services sector proved to be true. In no other sector was the number of people arrested this high in comparison with the number of claims filed.
In the finance and insurance sector, 39 public officials and 356 private sector representatives were detained. Of these, 14 of the public officials and 60 of the private sector employees were arrested. This is one sector where corporate corruption far outweighs corruption in the public sector.
In the public works sector, 86 public officials compared to 135 private business employees were detained as suspects. Of these, 79 of the private sector employees and 20 of the public sector employees were arrested.
The number of public officials arrested in the energy sector was 45, compared to 28 private business representatives. This is the only sector where the number of public officials charged over corruption allegations is higher than those of private sector employees. However, at the end of the investigations, only one public official out of the 28 suspects was arrested, whereas 15 private enterprise representatives were arrested. This is in contrast to data from the period between 1990 and 2004, a period during which the number of public sector arrests was consistently higher than private sector arrests.
A total of 141 suspects -- 22 public servants and 119 corporate officers -- were detained in the agriculture sector. However, only four public servants and seven corporate officers were detained in the end, indicating that agriculture is the least corrupt industry.
CHALast Mod: 05 Şubat 2011, 16:12