The militants believed to belong to Al-Qaeda group attacked the barracks in the Wadi Obeida area early Friday morning, the source, requesting anonymity, told The Anadolu Agency.
He added that an unspecified number of Yemeni troops have been killed or injured in a subsequent exchange of fire with the militants.
The assailants, who had been boarding three vehicles, fled the scene following the attack, the source asserted.
Yemen continues to see daily violence, one that has left hundreds of civilians, tribesmen, army troops and Shiite Houthis dead so far.
The Arab country has been hard hit by political turmoil since a popular uprising that erupted in 2011 toppled longstanding president Ali Abdullah Saleh one year later.