Mubarak and sons Gamal and Alaa all attended Wednesday's session, which was held at Police Academy headquarters on the eastern outskirts of Cairo.
The defendants are accused of committing financial "irregularities" related to the government's budget for the upkeep of presidential palaces.
The three men appeared in court on Wednesday in a soundproof glass dock.
At one point, Gamal Mubarak complained of an inability to hear inside the dock, prompting the judge to have the sound volume inside the dock raised.
Prosecutors referred the three men to trial last November.
Earlier investigations had revealed that the three men had tacked the costs of developing private property – said to be worth some 125 million Egyptian pounds (roughly $18 million) – onto the state budget.
Prosecutors say that two former officials in Mubarak's presidential office, along with two engineers from Egypt's Arab Contractors construction company, had helped the defendants illegally appropriate public funds.
The senior Mubarak is currently staying at a military hospital in southern Cairo following the expiry of his temporary detention on multiple charges.
Mubarak – along with his two sons, former interior minister Habib al-Adly, six of the latter's aides, and a business mogul – also faces charges of ordering the killing of unarmed demonstrators during the 2011 uprising that ultimately led to his ouster.
Soon after his release last summer, Mubarak was placed under house arrest for security reasons by interim Prime Minister Hazem al-Beblawi.